What is Human microbiota? Human cells just tell half the story, according to researchers. The other half consists of the multitude of microbiologists that make up the microbiota — “alien” environments throughout our bodies that can help us prosper as long as there’s a good balance.
The human body comprises trillions of specialized cells – small blocks that sustain the body ‘s growth and functioning.
Yet not only are human cells the “materials” of our species. Indeed, with billions of microorganisms, we live in symbiosis too.
The actual ratio of human cells to microorganisms in the average body has long been discussed by researchers. Scholarships have fluctuated but the latest research – published in PLOS Biology in 2016 – shows that we potentially have as many microorganisms on our organisms as we do human cells.
Including bacteria and viruses, archaea, primitive no-kernel species and eukaryotic microorganisms, or eukarya, a group with a nucleus to protect its chromosomes are included in the microorganisms. Fungi and protists, small organisms on the “line” between a plant and fungus are in the latter category.
These are all made up of specific microbiota groups: microbiology populations at or in the human body at various locations.
The different microbiota make up the human microbiome: the entire group of micro-organisms spread throughout the human body.
Collections of microorganisms in various areas play an important role in improving our health — however, a good balance must be sought between the numbers of different types of bacteria, fungi and others.
This balance can lead to infection and other health problems when, for example, one bacterial species overpopulates.
This attribute identifies the various species in your stomach, mouth, vagina and wort, penis, skin , hair, and lungs that create their homes.
Healthy H2 condition
Microorganisms, and in particular bacteria, the best talked about habitat for colonizing is human bowel.
Research show that a large “collection of bacteria , archaea, and eukarya” in the human gastrointestinal tract play a major role in gut homeostasis that helps preserve the health of the gastrointestinal system.
Work indicates also that intestinal bacteria regulate the relation from the intestine to the brain by interfering with the enteric nervous system and other hormonal or immunological mechanistic mechanisms.
Firmicutes and bacteroidets are the major bacterial phyla or forms found in the intestines, which make up 90 percent of the body. FURSHER
Others include Actinobacteria, Fusobacterua, and Verrucomicrobial diseases. Those involve several common bacterial classes or genera, such as Lactobacillus, from Firmicutes phylla, which is considered to have beneficial health effects.
At the other hand, some Firmicute species, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Clastridium perfringens, can quickly cause illness if they overgrow.
Some prominent pathogenic species, including Enterobacter, Helicobacter, Sigella, and Salmenella bacteria and Escherichia coli, are included in the Proteobacteria phylum.
The Actinobacteria phylum, however, contains the species Bifidobacterium bifidum that is usually useful to healthy people.
Nevertheless, this list is not exhaustive at all. The human gastrointestinal tract comprises approximately 2,172 bacterial species, as collected data show.
It is because all of these bacteria can cause infection if they are over-colonized that some of these names sound unpleasant. And certain strains can infect the intestines with bad foods or with unclean surfaces.
Some E strains. Coli can cause some S strains to cause infections which cause diarrhea and vomiting. Aureus may become antibiotic-resistant and cause serious diseases and infections with Salmonella can cause diarrhea.
By general, however, gut bacteria can be good partners by health care, and the researchers continue to study the many ways that these microorganisms help to keep us healthy.
“This is a new frontier in medicine and many perceive the gut microbiota as an additional organ system,” says an interview with Harvard Medical School infectious disease expert, Dr. Elizabeth Hohmann. FUTURE
“[It is] the gut that is most critical for our gastrointestinal system ‘s health but can have much greater effects on our well-being,” she said.
Viruses but not the ones that usually cause illness are other microorganisms in the intestine. They are a type that is called “bacteriophages,” literally consuming bacteria, which help to maintain a microbial balance through bacterial internal functioning.
“The majority of the viral portion of the gut microbiome” is made up of bacteriophages, and researchers have argued that some of their function is to infect other bacteria in order to maintain a healthy intestinal micro-organism. However, much remains unintelligible about them.
The mouth of microorganisms
Unlike the stomach, there are also many bacteria needed for homeostasis in the mouth.
“The oral cavity comprises a wide range of microorganisms. It is in continuous touch and has shown its susceptibility to environmental effects, “the authors of a study published in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology in 2019 note.
We also point out that, depending on the type of surface that is binding, for example, to the ear, the tongue and the teeth, “different mouth surfaces are colonized preferentially by oral bacteria.”
Microbiota oral contains 12 phylae — Firmicute, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Spirochaetes, SR1 — with several species called unidentified, or Synergistetes, Saccharibacteria and Gracilibacteria.
But other microorganisms are present in the mouth, namely, protozoa, the most common of which are Entamoeba gingival and Trichomonas tenax, fungi and viruses.
85 kinds of fungi, including Candida (Charomycetales, Aspergilli), Cladosporium, Aureobasidium and Cryptococcus, occur in the oral setting.
“[Oral microbiota] plays a vital role to maintain oral homeostasis, protect the oral cavities and prevent the development of disease,” the review’s authors wrote in 2019.
Like with many microbiota, it may contribute to the creation of diseases such as various bacterial infections when the amount of microorganisms that inhabit the body becomes imbalanced.
Urogenital female areas
There are several micro-organisms in human genitals and urinary tracts as well.
Work in the vagina indicates that “bacteria” rule the environment, but questions are not answered easily.
Recent studies have shown that bacterial populations components in the vagina may not only vary in different stages, but also vary in different races and ethnic groups.
Lactobacilli, Prevotella, Dialister, Gardnerella, Megasphaera, Eggerthella and Aerococcus are some kinds of bacteria known in the vaginal system.
“Human vaginal microbiota tends to play a major role in preventing a variety of diseases of urogenesis, including bacterial vaginosis, yeast, sexually transmitting infections, urinary tract and HIV infections,” said a PNAS study.
Therefore, experts advise special caution in the area of intimate hygiene: many products will kill the delicate bacterial balance in the area.
However, the PNAS analysis also states that “[bacteria] are poorly understood as means to protect themselves from infection.”
In fact, the microbiota of the uterus is little understood. Researchers only recently and until now, in small groups have started researching it. One research showed that Lactobacillus and Flavobacterium were the most common uterine bacteria, no matter whether a woman is pregnant. There is continued further in-depth analysis.
The female bladder and urethra have nothing to do with the microbiota, too. A report published in the 2017 UroLogic Current Opinion states, “Without knowledge or consideration of urinary women microbiotes, the vast majority of urinary work has been performed.”
According to recent investigations, Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus seem to be the most common types of bacteria in female urethra.
And while some scientists suggest that the bladder and female urinary tract microbiota are largely identical, other researchers begin to differ. A survey in the Journal of Urology published this year found important differences.
The authors also assume that female lower urinary tract bacterial populations that differ in age, sexual activity, and whether the individual entered menopause or not.
H2 Urogenital male areas
When scientists still do not know so much about urogenital female bacteria, then they seem to know much less about the male bacterial bacteria.
A 2010 research PLOS One found that in a culture-independent investigation variations in microbial cultures are circumcised as compared with uncircumcised penises.
More precisely, on uncircumcised penis, bacteria from the families Clostridiales and Prevotellaceae were more concentrated.
These disparity can play a part in inflammation and susceptibility to infection, according to the authors of the study.
In a study co-author Dr Cindy Liu, he noted in an interview: “People who are uncircumcised have considerably more bacteria on their penis.
Aside from this, the penile microbiota is little known. Professor Dr. Deborah Anderson, who is a professor at Boston University School of Medicine in obstetrics, gynecology and microbiology, commented in the same interview:
“The penis has been recognized. There might be an interesting story, but we didn’t really do the right research.
On H2 Haut
Like the intestine, the human skin contains many bacteria and fungal types.
A review — published in Nature Reviews Microbiology in 2018 — shows that the species of bacteria differ greatly from area of the skin as well as from different causes, such as skin moisture and natural oil or sebum.
According to the study, “Sebaceous sites had […] predominantly species of Propionibacterium, while in wet environments such as Staphylococcus and species of Corynebacterium bacteria were predominantly abundant, even in humid areas with elbows and feet.”
However, fungal species, irrespective of the skin type, appear to be relatively consistent in composition.
Fungi of the Malassezia genus are the most widespread in the body and on the skin of the arms according to the investigators. By comparison the most common mixture of the skin of the feet is Malassezia, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula and Epicoccum.
Bacteria are the most common microorganisms on the human skin, while fungi are the least common.
Skin bacteria can help prevent pathogen invasion and encourage disease depending on the colonies. As the writers of the study say:
“The interactions among microbiota members shape both the resident microbial community and prevent pathogenic bacterial colonization in a process known as colonization resistance.”
“Bacteria that are normally beneficial to their hosts may become pathogenic in other circumstances,” they continue to say. Many common skin conditions are linked to changes in the dysbiosis called microbiota.
H2 Skin microbiologies
Many parts of the epithelial tissue, including the conjunctiva, are susceptible to bacteria.
A 2011 study showed the healthy human conjunctive that at least five bacterial phyla and 59 genera are present.
Pseudomonas, Propiónibacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacterium, Brevundimonas, Staphylococci, Aquabacterium, Sphingomonas, Streptococcus, Streptophyta and Methylobacterium are the primarily bacterial types.
Several fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus and Penicillium species, are also present.
The function of the conjunctive microbiome is unclear for the time being.
H2 in the pulm
Bacteria in the lungs are also found only in respiratory conditions. Yet even in healthy lungs, bacteria are present.
According to an estimate from 2017, some of the most commonly identified bacterial phylosis are firmicuts, bacteriodetes, protectobacteria, fusobacteria and actinobacteria. Prevotella, Veillonella and Streptococcus are among the most common genera.
During a delicate balance of the lung’s bacterial populations, diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can develop.
Haemophilus and Neisseria, for example, are rising in asthma while prevotella and veillonella are declining. It supports the idea that asthma can be due to dysbiosis of the lung microbiome.
The team under consideration in 2017 outlined a need for more research into the processes linked to microbiota, which may affect pulmonary health. “In future studies, we will consider potential and complex interactions between bacteria , viruses and fungi.”
The human microbiome is a complex system, and researchers continue to discover its important role in the health and disease of human beings. Scientists strive to deepen their understanding of the mysteries of this microcosm.